December 19, 2016 marks the tenth anniversary of the death of Yuri Andreyevich Zhdanov (1919 - 2006) - a major Russian scientist, an outstanding organizer of science and the well-known public figure, Doctor of Chemistry, and the candidate of philosophical sciences, professor, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences / Russian Academy of Sciences, the actual member of many Russian and international academic associations and unions, the USSR State Prize winner; the man who headed the Rostov State University back in 1957, running it until 1988, went down in history of higher schools in the country as one of the most successful directors.It is in Zhdanov our university (formerly Warsaw, then Don, Rostov State later) became the pride of the South of Russia and the basic institution of the North Caucasus, one of the leading scientific, educational and cultural centers of the country. Itssuccessor RGU is now Southern Federal University. On the anniversary of the death of Yuri Andreyevich, we publish in the pages of «Engineering journal of Don» rather curious (and to some extent even unusual) material on Y.A. Zhdanov, written by a man who was not only well acquainted with him, but worked directly under him in the North-Caucasus scientific center of higher school-perhaps the most beloved offspring of Yuri Andreyevich. The author of the material PhD, Associate Professor Vladimir Ryabtsev. It is a pet of our university, one of his old-timers. Since the beginning of the 1990s, he participated in the development and implementation by scientists and specialists SKNCHS SFU a number of large-scale research and applied scientific projects of regional focus. In the period from 1996 to 2001 V. Ryabtsev headed Interuniversity Department of Regional (Caucasian studies) and the Caucasus countries of the Caucasus Department of the Institute - two unique for its time ""platforms"" (education and research), which existed in the structure SKNC HS. V.N.Ryabtsev and today continues to work here, as the lead researcher of the Center. In our disposal, V.N.Ryabtsev provided a material that is difficult to define clearly. On the one hand, this article is a human recollection, who personally knew the scientist, and even considers it one of its non-formal teachers; it is an attempt to draw attention to this still little known side of the creative heritage of Yuri Andreyevich, which once again demonstrates the versatility of his creative genius and an incredible erudition. It is a genre of science journalism, in which Y.A.Zhdanov worked successfully for many years. On the other hand, is the publication of very interesting material from the personal archive of the author - a review of one of the clearly undervalued during his lifetime, and has long been requiring reprinting books Y.A. Zhdanov); material does not lose its relevance to this day.
Keywords: scientific journalism, culture, tradition, Cultural Revolution, humanism
For basic research flame ionization process is necessary to obtain the true value of the ion current on the probe, taking into account the errors of the measuring circuits. To study the processes of ionization in the combustion cameo widespread ionic current sensors in the presence of the resistive component of the measurement circuit, such as current-limiting elements in the circuits connecting to the ignition coil high-voltage output or measuring shunt. This article describes how to account instrumental errors introduced by such measuring systems, as well as the proposed formula of the transition from the signal values obtained experimentally to the true value of the ion current. The results of the calculation of the reduced value of the ion current to the experimentally obtained signal. The possibility of making instrumental error of up to 40% in amplitude at signal peaks. It is shown that the construction of I-V characteristics of the ionization probe must be considered instrumental error introduced by the resistive components of the measuring circuit.
Keywords: ion current, the electrical conductivity of the flame, the measuring circuit, the instrumental error of measurement, resistive voltage divider, ICE
TiO2 thin films are widely used as a transparent layer n-type conductivity in the perovskite solar cells. Nanocrystalline TiO2 films were deposited on the surface of glass substrates coated with tin oxide with fluorine (FTO) by spin-coating and subsequent laser annealing radiation with a wavelength of 1064 nm. The effect of laser annealing on grain size in the TiO2 film and spin-coating speeds on its thickness. It is found that the grain diameter in the resulting TiO2 films on average 17-64 nm at a power of laser annealing 30-70 W. It was found that the thickness of the TiO2 film is changed in the range of 72-124 nm spin-coating speed. Optimal parameters TiO2 thin film formed by laser annealing can enhance the efficiency of the perovskite solar cell.
Keywords: thin film, TiO2, centrifugation, laser annealing, surface morphology, thickness
The process of 4-acetylamino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl/I2 mediated oxidation of 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural in a twophase system consisting of a methylene chloride and aqueous solution containing sodium hydrogen carbonate was investigated. It was shown that the introduction into the reaction system collidine provides selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-diformylfuran (yield 99% at a selectivity of 100%).The optimal composition of the system and the optimal conditions of synthesis were determined. A mechanism of promoting the oxidation of the OH- group of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and protecting the further oxidation of 2,5-diformylfuran by collidine was proposed.
Keywords: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, 2,5-diformylfuran, nitroxyl radical, collidine
Compositions of receiving and using waterborne epoxy - NIPU coating were developed. Experiments to study the compatibility of components in the waterborne epoxy - NIPU coatings were carried out . The optimum ratio of the components of the composition, in order to obtain the necessary physical and mechanical properties of the coating was determinate. The optimal compositions were recommended for industrial application.
Keywords: coating, epoxy & nonisocyanate polyurethane, waterborne system, physical and mechanical properties
The aim is handling trees seed non-thermal plasma activated water and its research results to improve the percentage of seed germination and rapid germination. Water treated plasma, has the ability to activate the germination. This significantly changes the acidity of the environment. Study on the treatment of seeds with non-thermal water plasma was conducted for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.), ash-leaved Maple (Acer negundo L.). Germination pine seeds soaked in plasma activated water for 2 minutes, increased to 22%, 11% spruce. Such seeds have a short period of germination. The period of germination was reduced to 1 day for birch and maple for 3 days for a total increase of germination by 18 and 16%. Phytopathological analysis identified a certain bactericidal effect. The number of seeds infected with fungi of the genus Alternaria, Penicillium and others decreased. Treatment did not affect the infestation of seeds fungi of the genus Spicaria, Germescium. As a result, there have been major findings and recommendations on the application of plasma activated water for seedbed preparation seed trees.
Keywords: water, non-thermal plasma, seeds, Scots pine, Norway spruce, silver birch, ash-leaved Maple
We consider the technique for calculating the spectra of primary photoelectrons generated by ionization of neutral components of the atmosphere by solar radiation in the area E of the Earth's ionosphere. Examples of the calculation of the photoelectron spectra at altitudes (100 - 130) km, depending on the solar zenith angle to the average level of solar activity are shown.
Keywords: solar radiation spectra of photoelectrons, the zenith angle of the sun, the collision of electrons, the ionization potential, secondary ionization, effective absorption cross section.
The influence of mechanical activation conditions on the the sintering temperature, grain size and microstructure of PZT-19 ceramics was established. It was found that the mechanical activation method allows to increase the uniformity of ceramics grains.
Keywords: ferroelectrics, particle size distribution, green building, mechanical activation, PZT
Idea of existence of black holes is the cornerstone of the set of the theories describing evolution of galaxies and stars. In spite of the fact that their existence at most of scientists does not raise doubts, formally these objects are considered as hypothetical. Many astrophysicists consider that our Universe arose from singularity which began to extend from the moment of the Big Bang, however, if black holes do not exist, then it, obviously, it is necessary to rethink the ideas. In this article the view, other than the hypothesis of the Big Bang, of the structure of the Universe and of the possibility of existence of black holes will be considered.
Keywords: cosmological model, a Big Bang, the final Universe, astrophysics, a black hole, supermassive black holes, methods of search of black holes, gravitational forces
Physico-mathematical modeling of multi-step processes of waveguide fabrication in glass K-8, based on the combined, solution of two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equation, electrostatic equation and wave equation has been made. The diffusion equation was solved by application of implicit finite-difference two-layer Crank-Nicolson scheme with appropriate boundary conditions for each step of technology. The general case of three-step technological process is considered, including thermal ion exchange ”silver-sodium” in salt melt mixture AgNO3:NaNO3, electric field-assisted waveguide burial in salt melt NaNO3 and final step of glass substrate annealing. The technological conditions for the fabrication of single-mode waveguides, which have the size of mode field suitable for efficient butt coupling of waveguides with optical fibers at 1.55 micrometer wavelength, have been determined. The calculated mode size of waveguides is 10.6*9.5 um; the coupling efficiency with fiber is above 99%. Also the modeling of partially buried waveguide has been performed, where the field-assisted burial was made with the deposited mask covering the half-surface of ion-exchanged waveguide. Such waveguide has asymmetric distribution of refractive index and hybrid guided modes, and it may be the base of passive waveguide polarization TE-TM converters.
Keywords: integrated optics, optical waveguides, ion exchange in glass, electrically stimulated migration of ions, the nonlinear diffusion equation, waveguide mode
Many complex oxides of transition metals show effect of enormous dielectric permeability. New complex layered oxides LnSr2CuTiO6,5 (Ln = La, Nd, Pr) are synthesized. Their structure by means of x-ray diffraction on the Shimadzu XRD-7000 S is investigated. Processing of XRD was carried out in the program FULLPROF-2013. The main X-ray reflexes are indicated in space group I4/mmm (№ 139). The data of the crystal-chemical analysis which are carried out taking into account a charge state and coordination environment of cations show that distortion of coordination polyhedrons is significantly reduced in series Ln = La→Nd. The unit cell parameters naturally decrease according to reduction of ionic radiuses of La→Nd. Dielectric properties of materials investigated using the universal analyzer of a frequency response Solartron 1260A in the range of frequencies 1mHz - 16МHz with a signal amplitude 500-900 mV. Increasing the dielectric constant is possible due to the charge ordering caused by uneven distribution of charge. Frequency dependences of an imaginary and real part of dielectric constant are given.
Keywords: dielectric constant , complex oxide, transition metal, perovskite, x-ray diffraction, microstructure, crystal-chemical analysis, impedance- spectroscopy, charge ordering, coordination polyhedron
The article presents the results of research of hydrodynamics of flow of the gas-suspension of conversion lime carbonate in a tube-dryer. For the first time equations for determining the speed and concentration of lime carbonate along the length of the tube-dryer at different air velocities and feed concentrations are received. The research results can be used to design pipes-dryers for large-tonnage productions of conversion of calcium carbonate. Experiments of research of hydrodynamics of the gas-suspension of conversion lime carbonate were carried out on the tube-dryer with an internal diameter to 0.069 m, length 4.8 m. Along the axis of the pipe on the rod vertically mounted discs, the first disc below the auger to 0.6 m, the second – above the auger to 0.7 m and further 1 m, total 5 disks.
Keywords: conversion lime carbonate, drying, tube-dryer
The article presents the results of researches of heat and mass transfer in the flow of the gas-suspension of conversion lime carbonate in a tube-dryer. For the first time equations for determining the influence of initial air temperature at moisture content in a tube-dryer, the influence of air temperature on heat rate are received. The research results can be used to design pipes-dryers for large-tonnage productions of conversion of calcium carbonate. Experiments of researches of heat and mass transfer in the flow of the gas-suspension of conversion lime carbonate were carried out on the tube-dryer with an internal diameter to 0.069 m, length 4.8 m. Along the axis of the pipe on the rod vertically mounted discs, the first disc below the auger to 0.6 m, the second – above the auger to 0.7 m and further 1 m, total 5 disks.
Keywords: conversion lime carbonate, drying, tube-dryer
Solved calculation of equilibrium distribution of Ge and the density of elastic energy in semiconductor film SiGe/Si. Built the 3D model of flat film with pyramid islands and dislocations. Calculation of elastic deformation is made using the finite element method. In this model takes into account the uneven distribution of Si and Ge due to threading dislocations, misfit stress and dislocation loops. The results showed that in the two-part elastic layer SiGe provision balance dislocation is located in the depth of the inconsistencies of the film and not on the boundary of film-substrate. This conclusion applies to the penetrating dislocation, while changing the orientation of dislocation much changes box elastic stresses and distribution component of Si and Ge in the film. The results of the calculation model of the sample, including prismatic dislocation loop, shown a significant impact on the value of the elastic energy of the film. While accounting for the effects of non-uniform distribution of SiGe alloy component does not result in a significant change in the magnitude of elastic energy model and critical values of height. According to calculations, taking into account the heterogeneity of the distribution component of the alloy transition to the formation of Epitaxial islets on the film surface occurs at lower values of their critical size, especially when small concentrations of Ge in the alloy. The results of calculation of the elastic energy of the film received at work, can be applied to calculate the conditions of occurrence of defects in nanometer dimension on the original flat free surface of semiconductor films.
Keywords: germanium, thin film, heteroepitaxy, SiGe, misfit dislocations, threading dislocation, elastic energy density, dislocation loop
The present work is devoted to study of atomic and electronic structure of nitrospiropyran molecules deposited on a Bi (111) substrate before and after irradiation by UV light and X-rays. The study was done using the density functional theory (DFT) and a theoretical analysis of the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. As a result of the calculations the low-energy structure for nitrospiropyran molecules on a Bi (111) substrate was obtained.
Keywords: local atomic and electronic structure, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, photoisomerization, density functional theory
Within the framework of solving the problem of increasing the effectiveness of the directional properties of adaptive systems with parametric sonar emitting antenna in the results of generalization of theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of hydro-irregularities on the characteristic parameter of the antenna. A comparison of the results of calculations of the antenna directivity characteristic parameter derived from the model Khokhlova-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsova, with the results of experimental measurements of the directional properties of the parametric array. We obtain the normalized dependence of the width of the parametric characteristics of the antenna by lowering the difference frequency from the center frequency of the pump waves of 5 to 16 times. The influence of changes in the speed of sound in the direction of the parametric array. We obtain the normalized dependence of the width of the antenna characteristics of the parametric values of the sound velocity at the surface of the pump transducer. It was found that the greatest impact on the characteristic parameter of the antenna has a change in the speed of sound to a distance equal to the lengths of 1-2 zone diffraction of the pump waves.
Keywords: adaptive sonar system, efficiency, parametric antenna, directivity characteristic
The X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful tool for local atomic structure investigation of materials with different origin including nanocomposites. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) is very sensitive to the details of local environment of X-ray photon absorbing atom. In order to perform quantitative study of EXAFS data the preliminary calculations of scattering phases and amplitudes of photo-electron in the crystal are required. The quality of this calculation highly affects on precision of such results, such as inter-atomic distances and coordination numbers. An existing methods use iterative self-consisted approach for the estimation of interatomic potential which could be neglected using fixed potential value in interatomic region (“muffin-tin”-zero). The Hedin-Lundqvist exchange potential is commonly used. The paper presents the results of the development and testing of computer code HFampl for the first-principle calculation of scattering phases and amplitudes within “muffin-tin” approximation using exact Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange potential. The development using GNU compilers collection has allowed an execution of the codes in any compatible operating systems (Windows, Linux, Mac). The atomic configurations were prepared for the most elements of the periodic table. The program tests performed on metals, oxides and iron-containing aqueous solutions demonstrated good applicability of the phases and amplitudes for the precise structural analysis, which allows accuracy up to 1% in interatomic distance calculation. Such accuracy in distances determination is as good as accuracy of common program packages. But values of other parameters (such as reduction factor and Debye-Waller parameter) are more realistic in case of application scattering phases and amplitudes obtained with HFampl code.
Keywords: Photoelectron Scattering Phases And Amplitudes For The Determination Of Atomic Structure By EXAFS Spectroscopy
The article briefly describes the technical solution for the use of specialized fiber-optic cable embedded in ground wire (OPGW) on the sections of electric Railways AC. The technical solution is to combine in a single conductor functions return conductor and fiber optic communication lines. Are given the relevance of such decisions and some peculiarities of its implementation. The main part of the article examines to the selection options return conductor with combined functions. The article describes the theoretical dependencies for the combined selection of the conductor based on the thermal resistance criterion. As one of the main passport parameters of the OPGW cables is the section of the metal component, the percentage of their content and the variation percentages are used in calculations to determine the electrical resistance of the cable and the magnitude of the permissible current. This approach allows to determine the parameters of the cable based on the criterion of reliability and allows to obtain the cable composition for a subsequent order from the manufacturer. The algorithm of selection combined return conductor that contains two stages: pre-selection based on the reference data, the choice of the real parameters from the manufacturer.
Keywords: OPGW, reverse wire, combined reverse wire, electrothermal degradation, fiber-optic transmission lines railway transport, traction network, the choice of combined shield wire
In this study, the task of optimization of the hybrid system of immersion cooling processor supercomputer with resistance spot cooling and dry zones. by numerical simulation and experimental study of heat transfer processes in the test object. The article presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental study of heat transfer in a heat exchanger submerged cooling system processors. We investigated the numerical model of heat transfer process in the processor-heat exchanger system. As a result, obtained according to the thermal resistance of the system processor and the heat exchanger of the heat transfer coefficient and the number of turbulent flow Reynolds.
Keywords: processor, heat flow, thermal resistance, Laplace equation, turbulent flow, the Reynolds number, heat, immersion cooling, immersion cooling system
Produced synthesis steklomatrits to make white glass-ceramic enamel coatings for steel products with various color shades in the system R2O-RO-B2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-P2O5-F- and investigated their spectrophotometric properties. We describe the basic features of different models of determining the color characteristics of the resulting coatings and choose the best for the objective of determining the parameters of color shades of white glass-ceramic enamel coatings for steel products.
Keywords: glass-ceramic enamel coating, protective coating for steel products, corrosion protection, spectrophotometric characteristics, color shades, whiteness, brightness, color models
Nanocrystalline TiO2 films are used as transparent layer n-type conductivity in the perovskite solar cells. The work presents the numerical diffusion-drift modeling of the transport processes and the accumulation of charge carriers in the heterostructure of TiO2 / perovskite / p-type semiconductor. The basis of the simulation put stationary physical and topological model based on drift-diffusion equations and semiconductor system allowing to model perovskite solar cells with a variety of electro-technological and constructive parameters. Obtained photovoltaic solar cell characteristics and plotted the efficiency of the TiO2 film thickness. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 film is 50-100 nm, thereby increasing the perovskite solar cell efficiency.
Keywords: Solar cell, thin film, titanium dioxide, p-i-n structure, numerical modeling
For hexagonal structures RMnO3, where R - rare earth ions are Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y entered anisotropic relative tolerance factor tx / tz. A correlation tx / tz with changes spontaneous polarization (strain) on the temperature and pressure, with a lattice parameter changes from the radii R ion concentration and changes in the structural parameters of R1-xAxMnO3 (A - Ca, La) solid solutions. It is shown that an increase in the Neel temperature TN corresponds to a decrease in tx / tz, with an increase tx / tz external pressure - increased temperature phase transitions in structures RMnO3 and concentration phase transitions Y1-xAxMnO3 (A - Ca, La) correspond to abrupt changes in tx / tz.
Keywords: tolerance factor, hexagonal ABO3 structure, chemical composition, temperature, pressure, solid solution
Contact network work in winter conditions is much more difficult than usual. The most hard contact network mode of operation is the mode of ice with wind, which increase wind and ice load on wires and cables, reference and supporting structures. Ice loading on the wires and wind effects significantly impair the conditions of current pick-off and coupled with operational factors can cause an accident and lead to a trains stop. From this perspective the detection of glaze-ice and rime deposition in the early stages with its minimal thickness becomes of vital importance. The article examines the methods of early detection of icing which are used on the transmission lines and the ability of these methods to be used in the contact network. The terms of the contact network and power lines are different that’s why not all methods used on the transmission lines can be used. The thermodynamic method of determining the ice is observed as the main. The set of equipment that implements this method and the installation option on the contact network part have been represented.
Keywords: overhead construction, contact wire, span wire, icing, workload, detection system, control methods, glaze-ice and rime deposition, power dispatcher, the thickness of the deposits, wire breakage, information