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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • Application of machine learning and natural language processing to develop a recommendation system for the selection of perfumery products

    The paper discusses the use of machine learning in relation to natural language processing (sentiment analysis, semantic proximity analysis) to build a recommendation system for the choice of perfumery products. The topic of the work is relevant in view of the growth of the range of manufactured perfumery products and the complexity of its choice by consumers and promotion by manufacturers. The proposed approaches are relevant for solving this problem due to the accumulated textual reviews and reviews of perfumery products on various websites, including online stores.

    Keywords: machine learning, natural language, sentiment analysis, distributive semantics, word2vec, recommender systems

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Volumetric modeling of a microwave liquid heater

    This work is devoted to modeling the absorption of microwave electromagnetic field energy in a device for milk pasteurization. Using CAD FEKO, a 3D model of the device was built and its operation was simulated. A study was made of the influence of the tilt angle of quartz tubes on the distribution of the electromagnetic field in the waveguide. The influence of the diameter and material of the tubes is also considered. The distributions of the electric field and the specific power absorbed per kg of dielectric in the waveguide are obtained. The accuracy of the results was assessed.

    Keywords: pasteurization, microwave, heat treatment of dielectrics

  • Methods of decision support in the management of maintenance and repair of security equipment

    The paper considers a model of security equipment reliability management using optimal control methods and data mining. An algorithm is given for finding a maintenance and repair management strategy that provides decision support in a wide range of system parameters changes. The possibility of automating the search for optimal solutions to the problem of increasing the reliability of security equipment is investigated on the example of the information system of analysis and predictive diagnostics of technical objects of the IS "Analyst", and the prospects for the use of neurofeedback in the tasks of increasing the reliability of complex technical systems are considered.

    Keywords: security system, reliability of technical systems, optimal control, necessary conditions of optimality, neurofeedback

  • The method of analyzing vacancies of construction specialties in order to modernize the educational course

    The widespread use of Educational Data Mining (EDM) allows the collection of data in the educational field for the analysis and adjustment of the educational process. Based on the analysis of the areas of training of construction specialties, a choice of job requests from the site was made hh.ru . A chain of nodes has been built in the Knime program for analyzing vacancies in construction specialties. Based on Knime queries, a semantic analysis of employers' requirements for construction specialties was carried out. The dependence of the result of the analysis of employers' requirements on the number of terms in the topic was considered. The preparation of the material was carried out to compare the data obtained from the work programs with the data extracted from the job search site hh.ru .

    Keywords: analysis, data, work program, education, query, term, table, employer requirement

  • Modeling and implementation of the process of determining road objects using the RetinaNet convolutional network apparatus

    This article discusses the problems of constructing convolutional neural networks for determining road objects. The general relevance and formulation of the problem of determining road objects is presented. The rationale for the use of artificial neural networks for determining road objects has been formed. The Retinanet network architecture is used as the main architecture of an artificial neural network for determining road objects. The general concept of this architecture and the main subnets are visualized. Error functions for the main subnets of the Retina net network are described. The design description of algorithms for constructing data annotation for training an artificial neural network, as well as algorithms for constructing the neural network architecture of classification, regression and feature pyramid is given. The dynamics of changes in the general error function when determining road objects is determined. The result of training an artificial neural network is presented.

    Keywords: convolutional neural networks, classification, regression, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, big data, mathematical modeling, computer science, RetinaNet architecture

  • Development of a method for automatic translation of a pictogram message into Russian text based on machine learning

    The article describes a method for translating pictogram messages into text in Russian language based on machine learning. The text of the article contains the concept of alternative communication systems, a description of the training data preparing process, a description of the neural network architecture and the results of training.

    Keywords: alternative communication systems, machine translation, machine learning, neural network, transformer architecture, Python, software

  • Evaluation of the effectiveness of measures aimed to increase the competitiveness of construction industry enterprises

    One of the key tasks in the development of the construction complex is to improve the quality and competitiveness of manufactured products and enterprises in general. The paper proposes a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of measures aimed at improving the competitiveness of construction companies and organizations, using the priority number of risk.

    Keywords: 4P methodology, increasing competitiveness, performance evaluation, priority number of risk

  • Collection and processing of textual data in the context of social sentiment assessment: methodological aspects

    This article discusses the aspects of collecting and processing textual data from social media and mass media in the context of assessing the social sentiments of the population of certain macro-regions. Text data is an important source of reflecting the sentiments of society and can be collected, pre-processed and analyzed using modern technical tools, considering the specifics of the hypotheses under study and the tasks set. This context is an important part of the system of comprehensive security of macro-regions in their cultural, social, economic, political aspects. The discussed approaches include the collection of relevant data, their processing and analysis using data mining tools.

    Keywords: text analysis, media data, natural language processing, social sentiment assessment, data analysis

  • Technical science. Building and architecture

  • Formation of a camping system as a basis for the development of autotourism of the Arkhyz-Phia highway

    This article discusses the urban planning concept of camping sites as objects of roadside service. The functional structure of the camping is considered. The analysis of the transport infrastructure and tourist flow of the Arkhyz district is carried out. The scientific experience in the organization of the camping system is considered. Based on the analysis done, a model of the formation of the functional structure of the camping system has been compiled.

    Keywords: camping, transport infrastructure, roadside service facilities, auto tourism, tourism, camping industry, camping system

  • Applicability of methods of thermal disinfection of existing systems of centralized hot water supply

    The article discusses the method of thermal disinfection of hot water systems, its features and effectiveness, provides various schemes that ensure the processing of the system and the destruction of legionella bacteria.

    Keywords: hot water supply, thermal disinfection, legionella, hot water schemes, centralized hot water systems

  • Improving the method for determining the estimated (marginal) cost of construction

    Currently, the estimated (marginal) cost of construction is calculated using aggregated construction price standards. Since the objects on the basis of which the collections of enlarged construction price standards were formed were calculated using the basic-index method, the standards do not reflect the real cost due to an imbalance between the standards and real prices. To solve this problem, it is proposed to form a database of completed projects that were built using information modeling technologies, and the estimated cost was calculated using the resource method. As it is filled, this database can become the main tool for determining the estimated cost of construction or the basis for updating collections of aggregated construction price standards.

    Keywords: aggregated construction price standard, basic-index method, resource method, information modeling technologies, digital information model, database

  • An analysis of modern housing design and construction in Iraq

    The author analyzed the main directions of housing construction, requirements and regulations of the Republic of Iraq; shortcomings of architectural and planning solutions for apartments and houses in the housing construction of Iraq were revealed. The elimination of the noted shortcomings should become the basis for improving the quality of architectural solutions for mass housing in Iraq.

    Keywords: architecture, dwelling, layout, Arab house, apartment, living cell, living group, construction, Anbar province, Iraq

  • On the issue of calculating the design of a prismatic beam with a multi-column truss

    Based on the beginning of the least work, theoretical dependencies were obtained to determine the internal forces in the elements of the combined trussed system. The analysis of the calculation results of a trussed beam with four posts was carried out and the physical side of the phenomenon of bending during the interaction of the main structure of the trussed beam with elements of a multi-post truss was revealed.

    Keywords: truss beam, combined system, multi-column truss, relative eccentricity, potential energy

  • Stress-strain state of reinforced concrete columns with local prestress at the manufacturing stage

    The article discusses a new type of reinforced concrete columns with local prestressing of reinforcement. Such elements can be used for high flexibilities and eccentricities of the longitudinal force, for example, in the construction of industrial buildings. The derivation of resolving equations for determining the stress-strain state of the structures under consideration at the stage of prestressing is presented. Equations are obtained for calculating the level of prestresses in reinforcement, at which technological cracks are formed, expressions for determining stresses in concrete and reinforcement, as well as the deflection of the column at the manufacturing stage. The calculation algorithms are implemented numerically in the MATLAB environment. A comparison of the calculation by the author's method with finite element modeling in the LIRA software package in a three-dimensional setting is presented, taking into account the physical nonlinearity of concrete.

    Keywords: reinforced concrete, columns, prestressing, stress-strain state, reinforcement, manufacturing stage, technological cracks, deflection

  • Use of fuel ash and crop waste as auxiliary additives in the expanded clay gravel’s production

    The researches results of the fuel ash waste’s and grain crops straw’s influence on the properties of the producing expanded clay gravel are presented in the paper. These wastes were used as auxiliary additives in the raw combination. The optimal composition of the raw combination has been established in the laboratory, for which physical and mechanical characteristics of the samples, including water absorption, compressive strength, bulk density, were analyzed. Characteristics of the expanded clay gravel samples are compared with the state standards requirements. It was found, that the addition 5% fuel ash and 1.5% crop waste (grain straw) ensures optimal swelling of the combination and high strength characteristics of the finished product.

    Keywords: expanded clay, fuel ash, waste of crop production, swelling, construction materials, porosity.

  • Evaluation of the effectiveness of countercurrent schemes of sodium-cationite filters in water softening processes

    The paper presents the results of evaluating the effectiveness of water softening using sodium-cationite filters with countercurrent modes of operation according to the flow schemes of purified water relative to the direction of supply of regeneration solution and washing water. The research was carried out at a pilot ion exchange facility using a single-stage sodium-cation scheme in laminar operation. It has been found that the flow from bottom to top under the resin layer leads to its compaction due to high hydraulic resistance, which in the case of water supply leads to an increase in softening efficiency, and the flow from top to bottom facilitates its passage through the resin layer due to low hydraulic resistance, which in the case of water supply increases the resin resource, and in the case of the supply of regeneration solution and washing water contributes to a more complete regeneration and washing of the layer from the residual amount of NaCl solution. A comparative characteristic of three grades of resins was carried out during two filter cycles with different countercurrent schemes. According to the results, the resins of the brands Purolite C100E and Tokem-150 are recommended for use in countercurrent circuits of filters for water softening.

    Keywords: water purification, water softening, water hardness, hardness salts, ion exchange, sodium-cationite resins, resin regeneration, countercurrent regeneration, resin resource, resin regeneration degree

  • Nativization of Christian culture in sacred complexes of galgai-che in the XIII-XIV centuries

    The analysis carried out in the article showed that the sacred architecture of Ingushetia is represented not by separate objects, but by sacred complexes, which always include three objects of worship, corresponding to the triune deity appearing in three persons: the main male deity, the secondary male deity and the female deity. The second conclusion related to the first, all sacred complexes of Ingushetia can be attributed to Christian architecture. Four groups of sacred complexes were identified: the temple of Thaba-Erda, general atronymic significance, patronymic significance, generic complexes. The last two groups are discussed in detail. It was revealed that sacred complexes reflect the processes of nativization of Christianity, both in the interaction of Christian and pagan mythology, and in the deification of the nature of a particular place. The architecture of each object individually may seem primitive, but the architecture of the entire complex as a whole, including the path from object to object, views of the surrounding space of mountains and gorges, a system of sacred trees and stones along this path, the movement of the sun is a unique phenomenon.

    Keywords: medieval architecture of Ingushetia, sacred complexes, traditional cultures, nativization of Christian culture

  • Variants of "folk" temple building on the territory of Ingushetia as a manifestation of religious contamination in the architectural formation of temples

    The article is devoted to a comparative analysis of the architectural features of the sacred complexes of Galgai-che of the XIII-XIV centuries. on the territory of Ingushetia. In the context of the natural-spatial arrangement, the manifestations of religious contamination in the spatial organization and external forms of "folk" temples are considered. The originality of the options for "folk" temple building was revealed. The peculiarities of temples characteristic of late Nestorianism were revealed. This method is used for the first time to study the sacred complexes of Ingushetia. The scientific novelty of the article is due to the fact that a comprehensive study of planning, space-dimensional solutions and construction equipment of churches allows us to confirm their dating and attribution, to establish the chronological proximity of the monuments.

    Keywords: Folk temple building, architecture of the Middle Ages, traditional architecture of the Vainakhs

  • Organizational and technological approaches to assessing the safety of buildings affected by natural and man-made accidents and disasters

    The article is devoted to the problem of assessing the safety of buildings affected by natural and man-made accidents and disasters. Within the framework of the work, the stages of assessing the safety of buildings affected by natural and man-made accidents and disasters are presented; measures of a technical and organizational nature were proposed to improve the quality of the assessment of the technical condition and safety of capital construction projects; the main directions for solving the problem of timely organization of the process of assessing the technical condition and safety of buildings affected by natural and man-made emergencies are considered.

    Keywords: building safety assessment, natural disaster, man-made accident, man-made disaster, restoration work, emergencies

  • Potentials and strategies for the development of peripheral territories of the St. Petersburg agglomeration (on the example of the village of Novosaratovka)

    As part of the study, the problem of developing the peripheral territories of the St. Petersburg agglomeration according to the existing monocentric model will be raised. On the example of the territory of one of the settlements currently being developed in the peripheral zone of the agglomeration (the village of Novosaratovka), the potentials ("vectors") of its development will be identified and strategies for its development according to the polycentric model will be proposed, with the formation of a general strategy for the development of the settlement with the prospect of applying it to similar " new" territories.

    Keywords: St. Petersburg agglomeration, polycentric model, “dormitory” areas, peripheral territories, Novosaratovka village, ecological, socio-cultural, public and business potential, “vectors” of development, territory development strategy, support center

  • Междисциплинарные исследования

  • "Smart Grids" of Volgograd heat supply systems

    This arcticle are devoted to the modernization of housing and communal system based on the technology of "Smart Grids". The methology of developing an assessment of the effectiveness of the project of the modernization of housing and communal services facilities using the technology of "Smart Grids" is given. It from the publication that the use of "Smart Grids" technology provides energy and economic efficiency in the development of the city's energy system

    Keywords: Smart grids, "Smart City", centralized heat supply systems, individual heat supply, evaluation of the economic modernization project, key performance indicators