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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • Prospects for the use of composite materials in field development

    Every year, for the implementation of any oil and gas project in the Far North, the largest oil and gas companies use new technologies. This is due to attempts to reduce the cost of field development and operation. The article reveals the advantages of using composite materials in the construction of oil and gas fields. The cost of using composite and metal supports is given. The main objects, the construction of which is possible with the use of composites, are shown, and conclusions are drawn on the large-scale introduction of this material during construction.

    Keywords: composite materials, field development, construction, labor intensity reduction, construction time reduction

  • Universal unmanned platform based on the Pelets snow and swamp vehicle

    The article discusses the development of innovative technology - an unmanned universal platform based on the Pelets snow and swamp-going vehicle, the key features of which are: the ability to quickly re-equip for various types of operations, the ability to perform work using remote control technologies, as well as high cross-country ability up to the crossing of water obstacles. The equipment is designed to perform a wide range of works: soil development, transportation and movement of goods, fire extinguishing, lifting and transport operations.

    Keywords: versatility, snow and swamp vehicle, cross-country ability, remote control, quick conversion

  • The best European practices of ecological construction according to the Well standard

    In modern construction, the issue of compliance with environmental standards is very acute. Nowadays, buildings not only protect people from the external environment, but also protect people's health and exist in harmony with the environment. Therefore, the integration of "Green Standards" will bring construction to a new level.

    Keywords: ecological construction, WELL, "Green standards"

  • On increasing the level of functioning of energy, transport and water facilities through the use of liquefied natural gas

    The article considers the directions of development of energy, transport and water facilities through the use of liquefied natural gas.

    Keywords: liquefied natural gas, energy, methane, motor transport

  • Methods of developing an effective advertising campaign of a travel company in the global network

    The article contains information about the factors influencing the attitude of consumers to tourist offers, and provides recommendations on the organization of an effective advertising campaign of a travel company belonging to the category of small and medium-sized businesses in the vastness of the global network.

    Keywords: campaign, advertising, tourism, internet, website, direct, marketplace, query, statistics, Iran

  • Subject-oriented rationale for the choice of software for the implementation of BIM technologies compatible with scheduling and network planning in capital construction

    The relevance of the use of information modeling today is of great importance in project management in capital construction. Since many mistakes are made in the design documentation, which subsequently have a negative impact on the implementation of investment projects: this is an increase in construction time, an increase in the cost of a project, a repeated passing of state expertise. The use of BIM technologies will solve the problem of increasing the construction time and reduce the cost of project implementation. The aim of the study is to review and comparatively analyze programs that are being actively implemented in the construction industry. The subject of the research is information modeling tools at the stage of specific activities (BIM-modeling programs). To solve the problem of choosing the best option for the implementation of BIM technologies together with programs aimed at project management using scheduling and network planning, it is proposed to use the Jobs-Decon program. In the process of work, the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the programs under study were determined, as a result of which a comprehensive assessment was obtained and the best option was selected with a comprehensive assessment of "3.56". Summing up, we can say that the use of these technologies will reduce the cost of eliminating project collisions, and will also make it possible to avoid disruptions to the contractual deadlines of investment projects in capital construction.

    Keywords: diversification of management, production diversification, financial and economic purposes of a diversification, technological purposes of ensuring flexibility of production

  • Physical and mathematical sciences. Physics

  • Optimization of the transfer coefficient of millimeter-wave mixers based on resonant tunneling diodes

    In this work, a theoretical determination of the transfer coefficient of millimeter-wave mixers based on resonant tunneling diodes is carried out. The analysis of the conditions for optimizing the transmission coefficient of microwave mixers using resonant tunneling diodes as nonlinear elements is carried out. The optimal constant voltage is determined, at which the amplitude of the local oscillator, required to obtain the maximum transfer coefficient of the mixer, will have the smallest value, and the coefficient itself will be the largest.

    Keywords: gain, mixer, millimeter wave, frequency conversion, local oscillator amplitude, modified Bessel functions, stability factor, resonant frequency, bandwidth

  • Management of the educational process in higher education with a mixed and distance learning format

    The work updates a strategic approach to maintaining the quality of student performance. In the article "Big Data" is presented as an approach to organizing the data obtained during the educational process. Mining analysis as a Big Data analysis tool. The authors also considered approaches to improving the effectiveness of learning, which allow predicting student performance. Blended learning, as an integration into the educational process, the best opportunities for online and distance learning, provided for the subsequent collection of Big Data for analysis. The application of data mining methods for the development of models for predicting the behavior and academic performance of students is considered. The authors propose student modeling as a key concept in data mining in education, which refers to the qualitative representation of student behavior. Algorithms for data mining are described, classification and clustering are presented as the most common tasks. The CART decision tree algorithm is presented as one of the effective data mining methods needed to predict student performance based on online activity that is stored in the Moodle LMS log file. Finally, it was concluded that the personal contact of an experienced teacher with a student in the educational process can not be replaced by the tools provided by Moodle and similar systems, but due to the growing threats caused by the pandemic, the relevance of distance education is becoming increasingly important.

    Keywords: student performance quality, big data, data mining, student modeling, CART decision tree algorithm, Moodle LMS, distance education

  • Ferroalloy piezoceramic material based on PZT, electrophysical and mechanical properties in a wide temperature range

    The electrophysical and mechanical properties of a piezoceramic material based on CTS are investigated. A number of features in the behavior of the electrophysical properties of the material in the temperature range located significantly below the low-frequency (1 kHz) maximum of the dielectric constant T_m = 160℃ have been revealed. The obtained results indicate the proximity of the studied material to ferroelectric relaxors, in particular, the low coercive field E_c~5 kVcmcm, the significant dependence of T_m on the frequency and amplitude of the measuring field, as well as the behavior of the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in this ceramic. It is shown that the elastic properties of this material are very close to ferroelectric relaxors, having a high malleability in a very wide temperature range. At the same time, the squareness of the polarization loops at relatively low temperatures indicates the manifestation of the classical properties of the ferroelectric during the polarization switching processes, and not the "freezing" processes characteristic of ferroelectric relaxors. From the results obtained, it can be established that this composition will be promising for use in the actuators of adaptive optics systems and precision positioning devices due to the high values of piezomodules.

    Keywords: PZT system, ferroalloy ceramics, dispersion, polarization, elastic properties, blurred phase transitions, curie temperature, depolarization temperature, ferroelectric relaxor, rhombohedral phase, tetragonal phase

  • A method for determination of the medium chirality parameters based on the analysis of material equations

    This article presents one of the methods for analyzing the chirality coefficient of a medium depending on such parameters as concentration n, frequency f, dielectric constants of both the container material, the medium itself, and left- and right-handed spirals distributed in this material. As a result of this work, the frequency characteristics of the chirality coefficient were obtained at various concentrations of the container trace elements.

    Keywords: chiral medium, Telledzhene element, chirality coefficient, dielectric constant of the medium, magnetic permeability of the medium, spiral structure, metamaterial substrate, bulk concentration, metamaterial, spiral inclusions

  • Formation of the active surface of deposited cobalt catalysts

    The effect of a zeolite support on the physicochemical properties of cobalt catalysts was studied on a series of samples with zeolites ZSM-5, HY, and NaX. The catalysts were obtained by precipitation followed by mixing the precipitate with a zeolite support. Their properties were characterized by BET, TPR, TPD-H2, IR spectroscopy. The results of the analysis show that the type of zeolite support affects the specific surface area, reduction of deposited cobalt, and the structural properties of the active component of catalytic systems.

    Keywords: precipitated catalyst, cobalt, zeolite, dispersion, specific surface area, active component, synthetic fuel, degree of reduction

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Analysis of the possibilities of modal management in enterprise quality management systems

    The work is devoted to the study of the possibilities of ensuring the unconditional achievement of the goals of industrial enterprises with a combination of modal management and linear regulation with cost optimization in the operational and tactical management of quality management systems. The commonality of dependencies in modal control and linear regulation is shown. An approach to the combination of modal control and linear regulation is proposed, including the determination of the possibilities for changing the elements of the system matrix, as well as the search for optimal or rational solutions based on cost accounting. The application of this approach is considered on the example of the activity of an industrial enterprise. It is established that modal control has no advantages over linear control, since it is used to increase the stability of systems. The performance of quality management systems can be ensured when it is transferred to an unstable mode of operation, however, the use of this mode cannot exceed two to three years.

    Keywords: quality management system, modal management, linear regulation, optimization, enterprise potential, personnel resistance

  • Simulation of protective circuits of a transistor switching device of constant voltage

    Simulation modeling of protective circuits of a DC transistor electronic device is considered. It is shown that simulation modeling is one of the advanced research methods. The application of the Simulink program for this purpose is justified. The transistor switching device is considered from the point of view of overvoltages arising when the current is switched off. A simplified circuit of the switching device necessary for conducting research is given. A complete diagram of the Simulink model is given. Protection schemes using resistors, capacitors and varistors are given. The magnitude of overvoltages on a transistor with a different combination of protective circuits is investigated. The dependences of the overvoltage magnitude on the switched current for various combinations of protective circuits are given. The dependences of the overvoltage magnitude on the parameters of the elements of the protective circuits are given. The conclusion about the necessary structure of protective circuits is formulated.

    Keywords: simulation, Simulink, switching device, overvoltage, transistor, protective circuit, varistor

  • Informational database model for accounting of the teachers workload of an educational organization

    This paper presents an information model of a relational database developed by the authors, designed to take into account the teachers workload of an educational organization. The identification of the subject area entities, their decomposition and the relationships identification between them are carried out. The constructed database model was brought to the Boyes - Codd normal form. Based on the designed database schema, its physical implementation and filling with test data was carried out. The results of test queries showed the developed model adequacy and the its practical applicationp ossibility. It is currently in trial operation at the Department of Information Systems and Computer Modeling, Volgograd State University. With minimal changes, the developed database schema can be applied to account for the teachers workload in various educational organizations.

    Keywords: database, information modeling, "entity-relationship" diagram, decomposition, information system, educational organization

  • Pneumatic stabilizer of transverse stability for PAZ bus - 4234

    The article provides a consideration of the prospects of replacing the lateral stability stabilizer with a pneumatic balloon in the suspension together with body level sensors relative to the road surface.

    Keywords: public transport, bus, spring - air suspension, body level sensor

  • The main aspects of adaptive management of the property complex of the territory

    The development of urbanized territories, as a rule, is associated with the expansion of urban space, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the load on transport systems and social infrastructure. Geographically divided areas have weak interconnection due to the lack of highways and public transport. At the same time, the infrastructure of the outskirts differs from the center in scarcity and monotony. An increase in the urban population, a change in the natural and climatic conditions of residence, the environment in urbanized areas, a steady increase in the value of real estate make it necessary to accelerate the pace of the integrated development of urban spaces. The most important task set today for the subjects of management of the municipality is related to the optimization and effective use of the objects of the existing property complex. The renovation process will affect morally obsolete and abandoned facilities that impede the integrated development of the territory, reduce investment attractiveness and reduce the volume of the tax base. Adaptive management will increase the efficiency of the use of existing territorial resources, improve the social and environmental conditions of the urbanized space. Involvement of the existing reserve of real estate objects in the city center will create conditions for the formation of new public and business spaces in the city, which is important for the comfortable living of the population.

    Keywords: adaptive management, property complex, development of territories, environmental damage, economic damage, renovation process, redevelopment

  • Improving the routing of commercial concrete mixers using a genetic algorithm with an emphasis on economic and environmental indicators

    Transportation is one of the most important stages in the management of cement delivery, which accounts for 60% of total costs. Thus, a slight improvement in the collection and processing of data on the operation of concrete mixers can have a significant impact on the overall savings spent on the work of companies engaged in transportation. On the other hand, the movement of heavy vehicles carrying cement mixture leads to the spread of air pollution and damage to the road surface in case of excessive loading. Therefore, the issue of determining the route of the vehicle to achieve this goal is very important. In this study, the routing process of concrete mixers was modeled using random routing problems and genetic algorithms. The simulation results showed that the genetic algorithm converges to the optimal answer. On the other hand, the volume of the cost function decreases from 1,177,500 rubles to 158,900 rubles. due to the optimization of the mentioned model, and the performance result led to the appearance of the shortest possible path. With the help of the algorithm, all the parameters of sustainable development management are achieved, including reducing air pollution, reducing fuel consumption and reducing the destruction of the road surface. Finally, thanks to the integration of the GLONASS/GPS software, the output data of the algorithm was mapped to the map.

    Keywords: optimization of routes, fuel efficiency, reduction of emissions, preservation of the integrity of the road surface, optimization, logistics, modeling, special car, urban operation

  • Study of vibration-damping properties of zinc electroplating deposited on a substrate of Cr18 gray cast iron

    The presence of vibration loads in any node or unit almost always leads to negative consequences in one way or another. Vibrations affect both biological objects and materials. High level of vibrations, under certain conditions can even lead to the destruction of the surfaces of parts and node as a whole. The purpose of these studies was to study the vibration-absorbing ability of zinc electroplating, used to restore the seating holes of the housing parts of machines. The main task was to determine the presence and the level of vibration-absorbing ability of zinc in relation to grey cast iron SCh18. The research was carried out on a laboratory prototype of a gearbox (gear reducer) with the use of vibration sensors and an oscilloscope. As a result, the vibration damping ability of galvanic zinc was proved and the comparative level of vibration damping in comparison with Cr18 cast iron was determined. For this study, zinc was electroplated from sulfuric acid electrolyte on the inner surface of the cast iron shells. First, readings were taken without zinc plating, then a 0.1 mm zinc layer was applied and readings were taken. After obtaining the data, the zinc layer was removed mechanically, the next 0.2 mm coating layer was applied and the readings were taken. The process was repeated with a coating interval of 0.1 mm until the zinc electroplating thickness of 0.6 mm was reached.

    Keywords: load, vibration, vibration-absorbing capacity, electroplating, substrate, vibration velocity, vibration acceleration, oscillograms, sulfuric acid electrolyte, zinc coating, gray cast iron

  • Wheat seed quality assessment based on convolutional neural network algorithm

    The article proposes a method for analyzing and assessing the quality of wheat seeds by classifying their images using artificial intelligence, namely a convolutional neural network. The architecture of a deep convolutional neural network was proposed, an image base was created for training and testing the proposed neural network, training and testing of the neural network was carried out in Tensorflow. Conclusions about the efficiency of image classification are made and areas of use of the proposed method for analyzing and assessing the quality of wheat seeds are proposed.

    Keywords: convolutional neural networks, artificial intelligence, image classification

  • Computational and theoretical analysis of changes in the thermal gaps of the "piston-sleeve" interfaces during the removal of carbon

    Carbon formation in diesel engines affects an increase in the temperature of the sleeve, a decrease in the thickness of the oil film, an increase in oil fumes, which causes more intensive wear of the piston group cylinder parts. According to the theory of heat exchange, the heat flow from the working fluid (combustion products) is directed perpendicular to the surface of the piston bottom and is proportional to the equivalent temperature to the average heat transfer coefficient per cycle. Heat can also be supplied to the side surface of the piston bottom, but since the thermal gap between the piston head and the cylinder is small, the heat flow is insignificant. The deposition of carbon deposits on the bottom of the piston and cylinder head causes a slight decrease in its temperature, but at the same time the temperature of the cylinder liner increases, which causes a change in the gaps of the "piston-sleeve" interfaces. Experimental determination of interface gaps on a running engine is associated with significant difficulties. As a result, a computational and theoretical analysis of changes in the magnitude of thermal gaps was performed with a decrease in the thickness of the carbon layer on the bottom of the piston. The deposition of carbon deposits on the bottom of the piston indicates less favorable operating conditions of the piston-sleeve conjugations due to an increase in the dynamic performance of the cycle.

    Keywords: quality, surface, part, performance properties, roughness, friction, wear, research, processing, physical and mechanical properties, hardening, deformation

  • Methods of aggregation, size reduction and big data processing

    The relevance of the study is due to the fact that big data analysis can be problematic, since it often involves the collection and storage of mixed data that are based on different rules or patterns. In this regard, the goal of this article is analyzing existing methods of big data processing that can be applied to the processing of mixed or heterogeneous data. The article describes the advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used methods of processing mixed data. The problems of processing heterogeneous data are revealed. Big data processing tools, some traditional methods of data mining, as well as machine learning are presented. The advantages of merging large mixed data are presented. In this paper, heterogeneous data should be understood as any data with high variability of data types, formats and nature of origin. The materials of the article have a practical value for big data processing, the choice of big data processing methods, including data cleaning, data aggregation, size reduction and processing of mixed data and related analytical and system analysis.

    Keywords: heterogeneous data, mixed data, multi-scale data, data processing methods, data mining, data analytics

  • Development of an automated system for detecting defects on fabric using computer vision

    The article discusses the issue of creating an automated system for detecting defects on tissue based on the use of computer vision. The resulting system makes it possible to control, register and calculate defects in textile materials without human participation in the technological process, which improves the quality of analysis, eliminates the number of errors in fabric sorting and reduces the cost of the technological operation.

    Keywords: automated system, defect detection, textile material, computer vision, microcomputer, image processing library