One of the most complex structural elements of the building is the roof. It protects the building from the external environment: precipitation, temperature changes, solar radiation, wind effects, as well as from air pollution. The main element of the roof is the roof, as the condition of the roofing depends on the condition of the other elements of the roof and in this article will be considered modern building materials used in the device of roofs.
Keywords: roofing, roof, modern roofing, metal, profiled flooring, Ondulin, membranes, slate, tile
The construction of social infrastructure is an integral part of improving the quality of life. The study systematized the main problems faced by the developer and the state in the construction of social infrastructure, provides an approximate list of measures that can improve the situation.
Keywords: social infrastructure, state, developer, economy, residential complex, public-private sector, housing construction, state, operation
Article is devoted to acquaintance with methods which are used in the work by experts-builders when conducting construction technical expertizes of building constructions, buildings and a construction. The list of the main methods used in researches by the expert is provided and also each method is considered in more detail.
Keywords: Method, examination, expert, technique, fundamental principle, special case, graphic model, construction designs, construction technical expertize
The issue of urban infrastructure management and urban planning technology "Smart city". The possibility of urban areas’ modernization using this technology is being studied. Actual problems of management of "Smart cities" are considered. The possibility of a positive economic effect is being studied.
Keywords: organization of construction, construction’s economy, application of technology "Smart city", urban environment, city life cycle
Covers the relevant issues of reduction of construction period by using prefabricated structures. The proposed method is confirmed by calculations proving its reliability and feasibility. When developing the method was considered economic component of the design and construction of industrial complexes
Keywords: organization of construction; modular construction, industrial construction
In article there are considered the main questions with which reconstruction of buildings of preschool educational institutions is connected. Their main classifications and features are given. The review of questions is made and their list is formed.
Keywords: preschool educational institutions, dou, reconstruction problems, reconstruction, energy efficiency, actions, sanitation
The deals with the topical issues of legal regulation of entrepreneurial activity in Russia. Traced the General trends, various variants and development of entrepreneurship in historical perspective.
Keywords: Economics of industry, enterprise, legal regulation of predprenimatelstva, history of entrepreneurship
The simulation of two-dimensional spherical crystals consisting of a large number of particles is carried out. These shells were analyzed based on their geometric structure and energy distribution. Various types of defects formed in a state of equilibrium is considered. Being shown the ambiguity of the existing method of their interpretation. A new way of describing such defects in the close-packed two-dimensional crystals with different topology is suggested.
Keywords: topological defects, two-dimensional materials, spherical crystals, topological charge
We have investigated electrical and gas sensitive properties of gas sensor based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanotubes modified by metal oxides (such as tin oxide and silicon oxide). Also we have find out that modification of CNT by metal oxides helps to improve film`s adhesion to substrate, decrease electrical resistance, recovery time, working temperature , enhance gas sensitivity in comparison with sensitive elements based only on CNT or metal oxides. Moreover experimental results showed that properties of composite material depend on concentration correlation of solutions. As a result we can get highest sensitivity of sensor element by choosing optimal relation between concentrations of solutions.
Keywords: Сarbon nanotubes, modification, tin oxide, silicon oxide, gas sensor
Technology of fabricating unheated gas sensors based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) using different temperature and time modes of a two stages IR-pyrolyze is developed for the remote control of the human condition. Gas-sensing elements based on PAN films and cobalt- and copper-containing PAN films are fabricated. Gas sensitive characteristics of the gained samples to CO, Cl2 and CHCl3 in atmospheric conditions are determined. We have found that gas-sensitivity of the samples depends on the composition of the original film-forming solution and on the process parameters of fabricating the film material. Moreover the samples show sensitivity and selectivity at room temperature. The benefits of this study is that films based on PAN and metal-PAN are the most promising material for electronic engineering including gas sensors for the remote monitoring of the human condition.
Keywords: Nanocomposite materials, gas-sensing layer, metal-containing organic polymers, IR- pyrolyze
In this work researches of structural and electrophysical properties of ferroelectric films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) which afterwards is planned to apply in hybrid sensor systems are done. Values of capacities of the received samples are in the range from 200 to 1100 pF, the range of thickness of the received films is 300-1000 nanometers. X-ray analysis showed direct dependence of the quantitative maintenance of crystalline PZT in film structure from partial pressure of oxygen in the camera. By results of research the range of polarization of samples are in the range 0,06 – 2,2 µC/cm2, and values of calculated piezoelectric modules are in the range 0,04*10-12 – 13,3*10-12 C/N.
Keywords: sensors, segnetoelektric films, touch systems, piezoelectric modules.
In this work the technology of receiving high-sensitivity gas sensors on the basis of zirconium oxide is developed for hybrid sensor systems. Laboratory samples of sensors of gas on the basis of zirconium oxide are made with use sol-gel method. Gas-sensitive characteristics of samples of sensors in relation to nitrogen dioxide are defined: limit of detection and factor of gas sensitivity. The received gas sensors will help to determine approach of an attack of bronchial asthma some hours prior to its beginning by level of an oxide of nitrogen in exhaled air of the person.
Keywords: hybrid sensor systems, zirconium oxide, bronchial asthma, nitrogen dioxide